John Alexander Williams (1996) defined the “loosely constructed” version of Appalachia as those counties included in any three of the four definitions that he deemed the “most influential definitions of Appalachia”: 1) Campbell, 2) Ford, 3) ARC, and 4) Raitz-Ulack. Our version of Loosely Constructed Appalachia includes the most recent definition of ARC Appalachia that would have been available to Williams at the time of his book’s publication in 2002.
John Alexander Williams, “Counting Yesterday’s People: Using Aggregate Data to Address the Problem of Appalachia’s Boundaries,” Journal of Appalachian Studies 2.1 (Spring 1996): 3-27.
John Alexander Williams, Appalachia: A History. 2002.