John Alexander Williams (1996) defined Consensus Appalachia as the counties found in any five of the six “classic” definitions of Appalachia, which he named as those that “individually and collectively shaped most general accounts of the region”: 1) Berea by Frost and Hayes, 2) Campbell, 3) U.S.D.A., 4) Ford, 5) ARC, and 6) Raitz and Ulack. Our version of Consensus Appalachia includes the most recent definition of ARC Appalachia that would have been available to Williams at the time of his book’s publication in 2002.
John Alexander Williams, Appalachia: A History. 2002.
John Alexander Williams, “Counting Yesterday’s People: Using Aggregate Data to Address the Problem of Appalachia’s Boundaries,” Journal of Appalachian Studies 2.1 (Spring 1996): 3-27.