In 1921, John C. Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland, a “landmark study and definition of the region” according to David Walls. In 1913, Campbell had organized the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers (later the Council of the Southern Mountains). With financial support from the Russell Sage Foundation, the Conference worked with Berea College to promote the idea of Appalachia as a distinctive region and address the needs of its residents (Walls).
Walls, David. 1977. On the naming of Appalachia. In An Appalachian symposium: Essays written in honor of Cratis D. Williams, edited by J.W. Williamson. Boone, NC: Appalachian State University Press.